Publications

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Year 2013

McCracken, L.M., Blednov, Y.A., Trudell, J.R., Benavidez, J.M., Betz, H., Harris, R.A.  Mutation of a zinc-binding residue in the glycine receptor α1 subunit changes ethanol sensitivity in vitro and alcohol consumption in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 344(2) (2013) 489-500.

Vlachos, A., Reddy-Alla, S., Papadopoulos, T., Deller, T., Betz, H. Homeostatic regulation of gephyrin scaffolds and synaptic strength at mature hippocampal GABAergic postsynapses. Cereb Cortex. 23(11) (2013) 2700-11.

Mayer, S., Kumar, R., Jaiswal, M., Soykan, T., Ahmadian, M.R., Brose, N., Betz, H., Rhee, J.S., Papadopoulos, T. Collybistin activation by GTP-TC10 enhances postsynaptic gephyrin clustering and hippocampal GABAergic neurotransmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. (2013) in press

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Year 2012

Dutertre, S., Becker, C.M., Betz H.. Inhibitory glycine receptors: an update. J Biol Chem. 287 (2012) 40216-40223.

Dutertre, S., Drwal, M., Laube, B., Betz, H. Probing the pharmacological properties of distinct subunit interfaces within heteromeric glycine receptors reveals a functional ββ agonist binding site. J Neurochem. 122 (2012) 38-47.

Kallenborn-Gerhardt, W., Lu ,R., Lorenz, J., Gao, W., Weiland, J., Del Turco, D., Deller, T., Laube, B., Betz, H., Geisslinger, G., Schmidtko, A.. Prolonged zymosan-induced inflammatory pain hypersensitivity in mice lacking glycine receptor alpha2. Behav Brain Res. 226 (2012) 106-111.

Lall, D., Armbruster, A., Ruffert, K., Betz, H., Eulenburg, V. Transport activities and expression patterns of glycine transporters 1 and 2 in the developing murine brain stem and spinal cord. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 423 (2012) 661-666.

Nobles RD, Zhang C, Müller U, Betz H, McCall MA. Selective glycine receptor α2 subunit control of crossover inhibition between the on and off retinal pathways. J Neurosci. 32 (2012) 3321-3332.

Weltzien F, Puller C, O'Sullivan GA, Paarmann I, Betz H. Distribution of the glycine receptor β-subunit in the mouse CNS as revealed by a novel monoclonal antibody. J Comp Neurol. 520 (2012) 3962-3981.

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Year 2011

del Pino, I., Paarmann, I., Karas, M., Kilimann, M. and Betz, H. The trafficking proteins Vacuolar Protein Sorting subunit 35 and  Neurobeachin interact with the glycine receptor β-subunit. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 412 (2011) 435-440.

Ruffert, K., Himmel, B., Lall, D., Bamann, C., Bamberg, E., Betz, H. and Eulenburg, V. Glutamate residue 90 in the predicted transmembrane domain 2 is crucial for cation flux through channelrhodopsin 2. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 410 (2011) 737-43.
   
Jedlicka, P., Hoon, M., Papadopoulos, T., Vlachos, A., Winkels, R., Pouopoulos, A., Betz, H., Deller, T., Brose, N., Varoqueaux, F. and Schwarzacher, S.W. Increased dentate gyrus excitability in neuroligin-2-deficient mice in vivo. Cereb. Cortex. 21 (2011) 357-67.

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Year 2010

Reining, S.C., Liesegang, A., Sorribas, V., Betz, H., Biber J., Murer H. and Hernando, N. Expression of renal and intestinal Na/Pi-cotransporter in the absence of GABARAP. Pflüger's Arch. Eur. J. Physiol. 460 (2010) 207-217.

Ishihara, N., Armsen, W., Papadopoulos, T.,  Zeilhofer, H.-U., Betz , H. and Eulenburg, V. Generation of a mouse-line allowing genetic manipulation of glycinergic neurons. Genesis 48 (2010) 437-445.

Madry, C., Betz, H., Geiger, J.R.P. and Laube, B. Potentiation of glycine-gated NR1/NR3A NMDA receptors relieves Ca2+-dependent outward rectification. Frontiers in Neuroscience 3 (2010) 6 (doi:0.3389/fnmol.2010.00006).

Eulenburg, V., Retiounskaia, M., Papadopoulos, T.,  Gomeza, J. and Betz, H. Glial glycine transporter 1 function is essential for early postnatal survival but dispensable in adult mice. Glia 58 (2010) 1066-1073.

Kubota, S., Alle, H., Betz, H. and Geiger, J. Presynaptic glycine receptors on hippocampal mossy fibers. Biochim. Biophys. Res. Comm. 393 (2010) 587-591.

Reddy-Alla, S., Schmitt, B., Birkenfeld, J., Eulenburg, V., Dutertre, S., Böhringer, C., Götz, M., Betz, H. and Papadopoulos, T. PH-domain driven targeting of collybistin but not Cdc42 activation is required for synaptic gephyrin clustering. Eur. J. Neurosci. 31 (2010) 1173-1184.

Bausen, M., Weltzien, F., Betz, H. and O'Sullivan, G.A Regulation of postsynaptic gephyrin scaffold stability by serine/threonine protein phosphatases. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 44 (2010) 201-209.

Haeger, S., Kuzmin, D., Detro-Dassen, S., Lang, N., Kilb, M., Tsetlin, V., Betz, H., Laube, B. and Schmalzing, G. An intramembrane network determines pentameric assembly of glycine receptors. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 17 (2010) 90-98.

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Year 2009

Moritz, A., Scheschonka, A., Beckhaus, T., Karas, M. and Betz, H. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 interacts with microtubule-associated protein 1B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 287 (2009) 522-529.

Maksay, G., Laube, B., Schemm, R., Grudzinska, J., Drwal, M. and Betz, H. Different binding modes of tropeines mediating inhibition and potentiation of a1 glycine receptors. J. Neurochem. 109 (2009) 1725-1732.

O'Sullivan, G., Hofer, W. and Betz, H. Inhibitory postsynaptic membrane specializations are formed in gephyrin-deficient mice. Neurosci. Lett. 458 (2009) 106-110.

Poulopoulos, A., Aramuni, G., Meyer, G., Soykan, T., Hoon, M., Papadopoulos, T., Paarmann, I., Fuchs, C., Harvey, K., Jedlicka, P., Schwarzacher, S., Betz, H., Harvey, R.J., Brose, N., Zhang, W. and Varoqueaux, F Neuroligin 2 drives postsynaptic assembly at inhibitory synapses through gephyrin and collybistin. Neuron 63 (2009) 628-642.

Dutertre, S., Kuzmin, D., Laube, B. and Betz, H. Glycine receptors Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology, Neural Signal Mechanism Signaling molecules in neural function (Mikoshiba, K., ed.) Vol. 1b  (2009) pp. 375-390 (Springer US).

Jedlicka, P., Papadopoulos, T., Deller, T., Betz, H. and Schwarzacher, S.W. Increased network excitability and impaired induction of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of collybistin-deficient mice in vivo. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 41 (2009) 94-100.

Reining, S.C., Gisler, S.M., Fuster, D., Moe, O.W., O'Sullivan, G.A., Betz, H., Biber, J., Murer, H. and Hernando, N. GABARAP deficiency modulates expression of NaPi-IIa in renal brush-border membranes. Am. J. Physiol. Renal. Physiol. 29 (2009) F1118-F1128.

Schumann, T.,  Grudzinska, J., Kuzmin, D., Betz, H. and Laube, B. Binding-site mutations in the a1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor convert the inhibitory metal ion Cu2+ into a positive modulator. Neuropharmacology 56 (2009) 310-317.

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Year 2008

Papadopoulos, T., Eulenburg, V., Reddy Alla, S., Mansuy, I.M.,  Li, Y. and Betz, H. Collybistin is required for both the formation and maintenance of GABAergic postsynapses in the hippocampus. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 39 (2008) 161-169.

Madry, C., Betz, H., Geiger, J. R.P. and Laube, B. Supralinear potentiation of NR1/NR3A excitatory glycine receptors by Zn2+ and NR1 antagonist. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105 (2008) 12563-12568.

Grudzinska, J., Schemm, R., Betz, H. and Laube, B. Mutations within the agonist-binding site convert the homomeric a1 glycine receptor into a Zn2-activated chloride channel. Channels 2 (2008) 13-18.

Zhang, C.-S., Bertaso, F., Eulenburg, V., Lerner-Natoli, M., Herin, G.A., Bauer, L., Bockaert, J., Fagni, L., Betz, H. and Scheschonka, A. Knock-in mice lacking the PDZ-ligand motif of mGluR7a show impaired

PKC-dependent auto-inhibition of glutamate release, spatial working-memory deficits and increased susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol. J. Neurosci. 28 (2008) 8604-8614.

Tang, Z., Hecker, C.M., Scheschonka, A. and Betz, H. Protein interactions in the sumoylation cascade: lessons from X-ray structures. FEBS J. 275 (2008) 3003-3015.

Zacchi, P., Dreosti, E., Visintin, M., Moretto-Zita, M., Marchionni, I., Cannastraci, I., Kasap, Z., Betz, H., Cattaneo, A. and Cherubini, E. Gephyrin selective intrabodies as a new strategy for studying inhibitory receptor clustering. J. Mol. Neurosci. 34 (2008) 141-148.

Bertaso, F., Zhang, C., Scheschonka, A., de Bock, F., Fontanaud, P., Marin, P., Huganir, R., Betz, H., Bockaert, J., Fagni, L. and Lerner-Natoli, M. PICK1 uncoupling from mGluR7a causes absence-like seizures. Nat. Neurosci. 11 (2008) 940-948.

Scheschonka, A., Findlow, S., Schemm, R., El Far, O., Caldwell, J.H., Crump, M.P., Holden-Dye, K., O'Connor, V., Betz, H. and Werner, J.M. Structural determinants of calmodulin binding to the intracellular C-terminal domain of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7A. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 5577-5588.

Caldwell, J.H., Herin, G.A., Nagel, G., Bamberg, E., Scheschonka, A. and Betz, H. Increases in intracellular calcium triggered by channelrhodopsin-2 potentiate the response of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7. J.Biol. Chem. 283  (2008) 24300-24307.

Bartholomäus, I., Milan-Lobo, L., Nicke, A., Dutertre, S., Hastrup, H., Jha, A., Gether, U., Sitte, H., Betz, H. and Eulenburg, V. Glycine transporter dimers: Evidence for occurrence in the plasma membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 10978-10991.

Weiss, J., O'Sullivan, G.A., Heinze, L., Chen, H.-C., Betz, H. and Wässle, H. Glycinergic input of small-field amacrine cells in the retinas of wildtype and glycine receptor deficient mice. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 37 (2008) 40-55.

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Year 2007

Madry, C., Mesic, I., Betz, H. and Laube, B. The N-terminal domains of both NR1 and NR2 subunits determine allosteric Zn2+ inhibition and glycine affinity of NMDA receptors. Mol. Pharmacol. 72 (2007) 1-10.

Armsen, W., Himmel, B., Betz, H. and Eulenburg, V. The C-terminal PDZ-ligand motif of the neuronal glycine transporter 2 is required for efficient synaptic localization. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 36 (2007) 369-380.

Papadopoulos, T., Korte, M., Eulenburg, V., Kubota, H., Retiounskaia, M., Harvey, R.J., Harvey, K., O'Sullivan, G.A., Laube, B., Hülsmann, S., Geiger, J.R.P. and Betz, H. Impaired GABAA receptor clustering and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity in collybistin-deficient mice. EMBO J. 26 (2007) 3888-3899.

Madry, C., Mesic, I., Bartholomäus, I., Nicke, A., Betz, H. and Laube, B. Principal role of NR3 subunits in NR1/NR3 excitatory glycine receptor function. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 354 (2007) 102-108.

Saiyed, T., Paarmann, I., Schmitt, B., Haeger, S., Sola, M., Schmalzing, G., Weissenhorn, W. and Betz, H. Molecular basis of gephyrin clustering at inhibitory synapses: Role of G- and E-domain interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 5625-5632.

Scheschonka, A., Tang, Z. and Betz, H.Sumoylation in neurons: nuclear and synaptic roles? Trends Neurosci. 30 (2007) 85-91.

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Year 2006

Paarmann, I., Schmitt, B., Meyer, B., Karas, M. and Betz, H. Mass spectrometric analysis of glycine receptor-associated gephyrin splice variants. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 34918-34925

Scheschonka, A., Betz, H. and Becker, C.-M. Nervengewebe. In: Löffler, G., Petrides, P.E. and Heinrich, P. (Eds.), Springer Press Heidelberg (2006) pp. 1023-1051.

Eulenburg. V., Becker, K., Gomeza, J., Schmitt, B., Becker, C.-.M. and Betz, H. Mutations within the human GlyT2 (SLC6A5) gene associated with hyperekplexia. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 348 (2006) 400-405.

Betz, H, and Laube, B. Glycine receptors: recent insights into their structural organization and functional diversity. J. Neurochem. 97 (2006) 1600-1610.

Gomeza, J., Armsen, W., Betz, H. and Eulenburg, V. Lessons from the knocked-out glycine transporters. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg. Handbook Exp. Pharmacol. 175 (2006) 457-483.

Parnas, I., Rashkovan, G., O'Connor, V., El Far, O., Betz, H. and Parnas, H. The role of NSF in neurotransmitter release: a peptide microinjection study at the crayfish neuromuscular junction. J. Neurophysiol. 96 (2006) 1053-60.

Bertaso, F., Lill, Y., Airas, J.M., Espeut, J., Blahos, J., Bockaert, J., Fagni, L., Betz, H. and El Far, O. MacMARCKS interacts  with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7 and modulates G protein-mediated constitutive inhibition of calcium channels. J. Neurochem. 99 (2006) 288-298.

Hirzel, K., Müller, U., Latal, T., Hülsmann, S., Grudzinska, J., Seeliger, M., Betz, H. and Laube, B.
Hyperekplexia phenotype of glycine receptor a1 subunit mutant mice identifies Zn2+ as an essential endogenous modulator of glycinergic neurotransmission. Neuron 52 (2006) 679-690.

Betz, H., Gomeza, J., Armsen, W., Scholze, P. and Eulenburg, V. Glycine transporters: essential regulators of synaptic transmission. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 34 (2006) 55-58.

Paarmann, I., Saiyed, T., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. Gephyrin: does splicing affect its function? Biochem. Soc. Trans. 34 (2006) 45-47.

Bausen, M., Fuhrmann, J.C., Betz, H. and O'Sullivan, G.A. The state of the actin cytoskeleton determines its association with gephyrin: role of ena/VASP family members. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 31 (2006) 376-386.

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Year 2005

Olsen, R.W. and Betz, H. GABA and glycine. In: Basic Neurochemistry, G.J. Siegel, R.W. Albers, S.T. Brady and D.L. Price (Eds.) Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo, Chapter 16 (2005) pp. 291-301.

Kondratskaya, E.L., Betz, H., Kristhal, O.A. and Laube, B. The ß subunit increases the ginkgolide B sensitivity of inhibitory glycine receptors. Neuropharmacology 49 (2005) 945-951.

Tang, Z., El Far, O., Betz, H. and Scheschonka, A. Pias1 interaction and sumoylation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 8. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 38153-38159.

O'Sullivan, G.A., Kneussel, M., Elazar, Z.  and Betz, H. GABARAP is not essential for GABAA receptor targeting to the synapse. Eur. J. Neurosci. 22 (2005) 2644-2648.

Eulenburg, V., Armsen, W., Betz, H. and Gomeza, J. Glycine transporters: essential regulators of neurotransmission. Trends Biochem. Sci. 30 (2005) 325-333.

Horiuchi, M., Loebrich, S., Brandstätter, J.H., Kneussel, M.  and Betz H. Cellular localization and subcellular distribution of Unc-33-like protein 6, a brain-specific protein of the collapsin response mediator protein family that interacts with the neuronal glycine transporter 2. J. Neurochem. 94 (2005) 307-315.

Grudzinska, J., Schemm, R., Haeger, S., Nicke, A., Schmalzing, G., Betz, H. and Laube, B. The ß subunit determines the ligand binding properties of synaptic glycine receptors. Neuron 45 (2005) 727-739.

Banks, G.B., Kanjhan, R., Wiese, S., Kneussel, M., Wong, L.M., O'Sullivan, G., Sendtner, M, Bellingham, M.C., Betz, H.and Noakes, P.G. Glycinergic and GABAergic synaptic activity  differentially regulate motoneuron survival and skeletal muscle innervation. J. Neurosci. 25 (2005) 1249-1259.

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Year 2004

Laube, B., Schemm, R. and Betz, H. Molecular determinants of ligand discrimination in the glutamate-binding pocket of the NMDA receptor. Neuropharmacology 47 (2004) 994-1007.

Laube, B. and Betz, H. Glycine receptors. Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry Vol. 2 (2004) 237-243, Elsevier Inc.

Sola, M., Bavro, V.N., Timmins, J., Franz, T., Ricard-Blum, S., Schoehn, G., Ruigrok, R.W.H., Paarmann, I., Saiyed, T., O'Sullivan, G.A., Schmitt, B., Betz, H. and Weissenhorn, W. Structural basis of dynamic glycine receptor clustering by gephyrin. EMBO J. 23 (2004) 2510-2519.

O'Shea, S.M., Becker, L., Weiher, H., Betz, H. and Laube, B. Propofol restores the function of "hyperekplexic" mutant glycine receptors in Xenopus oocytes and mice. J. Neurosci. 24 (2004) 2322-2327.

Harvey, R.J, Depner, U.B., Wässle, H,, Ahmadi, S., Heindl, C., Reinold, H., Smart, T.G., Harvey, K., Schütz, B., Abo-Salem, O.M., Zimmer, A., Poisbeau, P., Welzl, H., Wolfer, D.P., Betz, H., Zeilhofer, H.U. and Müller, U.
GlyR a3: An essential target for spinal PGE2-mediated inflammatory pain sensitization. Science 304 (2004) 884-887.

Baliova, M., Betz, H.  and Jursky, F. Calpain-mediated proteolytic cleavage of the neuronal glycine transporter, GlyT2. J. Neurochem. 88 (2004) 227-232.

Ohno, K., Koroll, M., El Far, O., Gomeza,J. and Betz, H. The neuronal glycine transporter 2 interacts with the PDZ domain protein syntenin-1. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 26 (2004) 518-529.

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Year 2003

Gomeza, J., Ohno, K. and Betz, H. Glycine transporter isoforms in the mammalian central nervous system: structures, functions and therapeutic promises. Curr. Op. Drug Disc. & Dev. 6 (2003) 675-682.

Haverkamp, S., Müller, U., Harvey, K., Harvey, R.J., Betz, H. and Wässle, H. Diversity of glycine receptor in the mouse retina: localization of the a3 subunit. J. Comp. Neurol. 465 (2003) 524-539.

Neugebauer, R., Betz, H.  and Kuhse, J. Expression of a soluble glycine binding domain of the NMDA receptor in Escherichia coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 305 (2003) 476-483.

Gomeza, J., Ohno, K., Hülsmann, S., Armsen, W., Eulenburg, V., Richter, D.W., Laube, B. and Betz, H. Deletion of the mouse glycine transporter 2 results in a hyperekplexia phenotype and postnatal lethality. Neuron 40 (2003) 797-806.

Gomeza, J., Hülsmann, S. Ohno, K., Eulenburg, V., Szöke, K., Richter, D. and Betz, H. Inactivation of the glycine transporter 1 gene discloses vital role of glial glycine uptake in glycinergic inhibition. Neuron 40 (2003) 785-796.

Grosskreutz, Y., Betz, H. and Kneussel, M Rescue of molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in gephyrin-deficient mice  by a Cnx1 transgene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 301 . (2003) 450-455.

Noh, J.H., Choi, S., Lee, J.H, Betz, H., Kim, J.I., Park, C.S., Lee, S.M. and Nah, S.Y. Effects of ginsenosides on glycine receptor alpha1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Mol. Cells 28 (2003) 34-39.

Foucaud, B., Laube, B., Schemm, R., Kreimeyer, A., Goeldner, M.  and Betz, H. Structural model of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glycine site probed by site-directed chemical coupling. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 24011-24017.

Birkenfeld, J., Kartmann, B., Anliker, B., Ono, K., Schlötcke, B., Betz, H. and Roth, D. Characterization of Zetin 1/rBSPRY, a novel binding partner of 14-3-3 proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 302 (2003) 526-533.

Sadtler, S., Laube, B., Lasub, A., Nicke, A., Betz, H. and Schmalzing, G. A basic cluster determines topology of the cytoplasmic M3-M4 loop of the glycine receptor α1 subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 16782-16790

Birkenfeld, J., Betz, H. and Roth, D. Identification of cofilin and LIM-domain containing protein kinase 1 as novel interaction partners of 14-3-3 ζ. Biochem. J. 369 (2003) 45-54.

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Year 2002

Perret, P., Laube, B., Schemm, R., Betz. H., Goeldner, M. and Foucaud, B. Affinity labeling of cysteine-mutants evidences contact residues in modeled receptor binding sites. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. 22 (2002) 345-356.

Horikawa, H.P.M., Kneussel, M., El Far, O. and Betz, H. Interaction of synaptophysin with the AP-1 adaptor protein γ-adaptin. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 21 (2002) 454-462.

Perroy, J., El Far, O, Bertaso, F., Pin, J.P., Betz, H., Bockaert, J. and Fagni, L. PICK1 is required for the control of synaptic transmission by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7. EMBO J. 21 (2002) 2990-2999.

El Far, O. and Betz, H G-protein coupled receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids: C-terminal tails, crowded signalosomes. Biochem. J. 365 . (2002) 329-336.

Bracher, A., Kadlec, J., Betz, H.  and Weissenhorn, W. X-ray structure of a neuronal complexin/SNARE complex from squid. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 26517-26523.

El Far, O. and Betz, H. Synaptophysins: vesicular cation channels? J. Physiol. London 593 (2002) 332.

Jess, U.,El Far, O., Kirsch, J.  and Betz, H. Interaction of the C-terminal region of the rat serotonin transporter with MacMARCKS modulates 5-HT uptake regulation by protein kinase C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 294 (2002) 272-279.

Laube, B., Maksay, G., Schemm, R. and Betz, H. Modulation of glycine receptor function: a novel approach for therapeutic intervention at inhibitory synapses? Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 23 (2002) 519-527.

Fuhrmann, J.C., Kins, S., Rostaing, P., El Far, O., Kirsch, J., Sheng, M., Triller, A., Betz, H. and Kneussel, M. Gephyrin interacts with dynein light chains 1 and 2, components of dynein and myosin-Va motor protein complexes. J. Neurosci. 22 (2002) 5393-5402.

Bavro, V.N., Sola, M., Bracher, A., Kneussel, M., Betz, H. and Weissenhorn, W. Crystal structure of the GABA receptor associated protein GABARAP. EMBO Reports 3 (2002) 183-189.

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Year 2001

Tintrup, H., Fischer, M., Betz, H. andKuhse, J. Exonic Sp1 sites are required for neural-specific expression of the glycine receptor ß subunit gene. Biochem. J. 355 (2001) 179-187.

Wittekindt, B., Malany, S., Schemm, R., Otvos, L., Maccecchini, M.L., Laube, B. and Betz, H. Point mutations identify the glutamate binding pocket of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor as major site of Conantokin-G inhibition. Neuropharmacology 41 (2001) 753-761.

Birkenfeld, J., Betz, H. and Roth, D. Inhibition of neurite extension by overexpression of individual domains of LIM Kinase 1. J. Neurochem. 78 (2001) 924-927.

Grosskreutz, Y., Hermann, A., Kins, S., Fuhrmann, J. C., Betz, H. and Kneussel, M. Identification of a gephyrin-binding motif in the GDP/GTP exchange factor collybistin. Biol. Chem. 382 (2001) 1455-1462.

El Far, O, Bofill-Cardona, E., Airas, J.M., O'Connor, V., Böhm, S., Freissmuth, M., Nanoff, C. and Betz, H. Mapping of calmodulin and Gβγ binding domains within the C-terminal region of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7A. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 30662-30669.

Sola, M., Kneussel, M., Heck, I.S., Betz, H. and Weissenhorn, W. X-ray crystal structure of the trimeric N-terminal domain of gephyrin. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 25294-25301.

Büttner, C., Sadtler, S., Laube, B., Griffon, N., Betz, H. and Schmalzing, G. Ubiquitination precedes internalization and proteolytic cleavage of plasma membrane-bound glycine receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 42978-42985.

Airas, J.M., Betz, H. and El Far, O. PKC phosphorylation of a conserved serine residue in the C-terminus of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits calmodulin binding. FEBS Lett. 494 (2001) 60-63.

Maksay, G., Laube, B. and Betz, H. Subunit-specific bidirectional modulation of glycine receptors by neurosteroids. Neuropharmacology  41 (2001) 369-376.

Kneussel, M., Brandstätter, J.H., Gasnier, B., Feng, G., Sanes, J.R. and Betz, H. Gephyrin-independent clustering of postsynaptic GABAA receptor subtypes. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 17 (2001) 973-982.

Hermann, A., Kneussel, M. and Betz, H. Identification of multiple gephyrin isoforms in different organs of the adult rat. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 282 (2001) 67-70.

Horiuchi, M., Nicke, A., Gomeza, J., Aschrafi, A., Schmalzing, G. and Betz, H. Surface-localized glycine transporters 1 and 2 function as monomeric proteins in Xenopus oocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (2001) 1448-1453.

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Year 2000

Tokumaru, H., Umayahara, K., Pellegrini, L.L., Ishizuka, T. Saisu, H., Betz, H., Augustine, G.J. and Abe, T. SNARE complex oligomerization by synaphin/complexin is essential for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Cell 104 (2000) 421-432.

Kneussel,, Engelkamp, D. and Betz, H. Distribution of transcripts for the brain-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor collybistin in the developing mouse brain. Eur. J. Neurosci. 13 (2000) 487-492

Völkner, M., Lenz-Böhme, B., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. Novel CNS glutamate receptor subunit genes of Drosophila melanogaster. J. Neurochem. 75 (2000) 1791-1799.

Betz, H., Harvey, R.J. and Schloss, P. Structures, diversity and pharmacology of glycine receptors and transporters. In: Pharmacology of GABA and glycine neurotransmission. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Chapter 16 (2000) 375-401.

El Far, O., Airas, J., Wischmeyer, E., Nehring, R., Karschin, A. and Betz, H. Interaction of the C-terminal tail region of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 with the protein kinase C substrate PICK1. Eur. J. Neurosci. 12 (2000) 4215-4221.

Horiuchi, M., El Far, O. and Betz, H. Ulip6, a novel unc-33 and dihydropyrimidinase related protein highly expressed in developing rat brain. FEBS Lett. 480 (2000) 283-286.

Fischer, F., Kneussel, M., Tintrup, H., Haverkamp, , S., Rauen, T., Betz, H. and Wässle, H. Reduced synaptic clustering of GABA and glycine receptors in the retina of the gephyrin null mutant mouse. J. Comp. Neurol. 427 (2000) 634-648.

Kneussel, M., Haverkamp, S., Fuhrmann, J.C., Wang, H., Wässle, H., Olsen, R.W. and Betz, H. The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA)-associated protein GABARAP interacts with gephyrin but is not involved in receptor anchoring at the synapse. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 8594-8599.

Bracher, A., Perrakis, A., Dresbach, T., Betz, H. and Weissenhorn, W. X-ray crystal structures of neuronal Sec1 from squid. Structure 8 (2000) 685-694.

Kneussel, M. and Betz, H. Clustering of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors at developing postsynaptic sites: the membrane activation model. Trends Neurosci. 23 (2000) 429-435.

Betz, H. Brain Research in the 21th Century: Unravelling mutations causing neurological and psychiatric disorders. J. Jap. Soc. Inherited Metabol. Diseases 16 (2000) 1-6.

Kneussel, M. and Betz, H. Receptors, gephyrin and gephyrin-associated proteins: Novel insights into the assembly of inhibitory postsynaptic membrane specializations. J. Physiol. (London) 286 (2000) 1-9.

Bracher, A., Dresbach, T., Betz, H. and Weissenhorn, W. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of squid neuronal Sec1. Acta Crystallogr. D 56 (2000) 501-503.

Becker, L., Hartenstein, B., Schenkel, J., Kuhse, J., Betz, H. and Weiher, H. Transient neuromotor phenotype in transgenic mice expressing low levels of glycine receptor ß-subunit: an animal model of startle disease. Eur. J. Neurosci. 12 (2000) 27-32.

Nehring, R.B., Horikawa, H., El Far, O., Kneussel, M., Stamm, S., Betz, H. and Karschin, A. The metabotropic GABAA type 1 receptor directly interacts with the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4). J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 35185-35191.

Laube, B., Kuhse, J. and Betz, H. Kinetic and mutational analysis of Zn2+ modulation of recombinant human inhibitory glycine receptors. J. Physiol. (London) 522 (2000) 215-230.

Harvey, R.J, Schmieden, V., von Holst, A., Laube, B., Rohrer, H. and Betz, H. Glycine receptors containing the (4 subunit in the embryonic sympathetic nervous system, spinal cord and male genital ridge. Eur. J. Neurosci. 12 (2000) 994-1001.

Ramming, M., Kins, S., Werner, N., Hermann, J., Betz, H. and Kirsch, J. Diversity and phylogeny of gephyrin: novel tissue-specific splice variants, gene structure and homologies to molybdenum cofactor synthesizing and microtubule binding proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 10266-10271.

Harvey, R.J. and Betz, H. Structure, diversity, pharmacology and pathology of glycine receptor chloride channels. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology M. Endo, Y. Kurachi and M. Mishina (eds.) Springer Berlin Heidelberg 147 (2000) 479-497.

Kins, S., Betz, H.  and Kirsch, J. Collybistin, a novel brain-specific GEF, induces submembrane clustering of gephyrin. Nature Neurosci. 3 (2000) 22-29.

Wittekindt, B., Betz, H. and Laube, B. Subunit-dependent inhibtion of recombinant rodent NMDA receptors by a HIV glycoprotein gp120 derived peptide. Neurosci. Lett. 280 (2000) 151-154.

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Year 1999

Roth, D., Birkenfeld, J. and Betz, H. Dominant-negative alleles of 14-3-3 proteins cause defects in actin organization and vesicle targeting in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 460 (1999) 411-416.

Kneussel, M., Brandstätter, J.H., Laube, B., Stahl, S., Müller, U. and Betz, H. Loss of postsynaptic GABAA receptor clustering in gephyrin-deficient mice. J. Neurosci. 19 (1999) 9289-9297.

Schmieden, V., Kuhse, J., and J. Betz, J. A novel domain of the inhibitory glycine receptor determining antagonist efficacies: further evidence for partial agonism resulting from self-inhibition. Mol. Pharmacol. 56 (1999) 464-472.

Griffon, N., Büttner, C., Nicke, A., Kuhse, J., Schmalzing, G. and Betz, H. Molecular determinants of glycine receptor subunit assembly. EMBO J. 18 (1999) 4711-4721.

Maksay, G., Laube, B. and Betz, H. Selective blocking effects of tropisetron and atropine on recombinant glycine receptors. J. Neurochem. 73 (1999) 802-806.

Betz, H., Kuhse, J., Schmieden, V., Laube, B., Kirsch J. and Harvey, R.J. Structure and functions of inhibitory and excitatory glycine receptors. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 868 (1999) 667-676.

Sabatini, D.M., Barrow, R.K., Blackshaw, S., Fields, M. Kirsch, ,J., Betz, H. and Snyder, S. Interaction of RAFT1 with gephyrin required for Rapamycin-sensitive signaling. Science 284 (1999) 1161-1164.

Harvey, R.J. and Betz, H. Glycine Receptors. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Nature Publishing Group, London (1999/2000) www.els.net.

Betz, H. and Harvey, R.J. Glycine as a neurotransmitter. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Nature Publishing Group, London (1999/2000) www.els.net.

O'Connor, V., El Far, O., Bofill-Cardona, E., Nanoff, C., Freissmuth, M., Karschin, A., Airas, J.M., Betz, H. and Böhm, S. Calmodulin dependence of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor signalling. Science 286 (1999) 1180-1184.

Laube, B. and Betz, H. Purification and heterologous expression of inhibitory glycine receptors. Meth. Enzymol. 294 (1999) 260-273.

van Rossum, D., Kuhse, J. and Betz H. Dynamic interaction between soluble tubulin and C-terminal domains of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits. J. Neurochem. 72 (1999) 962-973.

Kneussel, M., Hermann, A., Kirsch, J. and Betz, H. Hydrophobic interactions mediate binding of the glycine receptor fl subunit to gephyrin. J. Neurochem. 72 (1999) 1323-1326.

Kins, S., Kuhse, J., Laube, B., Betz, H. and Kirsch, J. Incorporation of a gephyrin binding motif targets NMDA receptors to gephyrin-rich domains in HEK 293 cells. Eur. J. Neurosci. 11 (1999) 740-744.

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Year 1998

Betz, H. Gephyrin, a major player in GABAergic postsynaptic membrane assembly? Nature Neurosci. 7 (1998) 541-543.

Feng, G., Tintrup, H., Kirsch, J., Nichol, M.C., Kuhse, J., Betz, H. and Sanes, J.R. Dual requirement for gephyrin in glyine receptor clustering and molybdoenzyme activity. Science 282 (1998) 1321-1324.

El Far, O., O'Connor, V., Dresbach, T., Pellegrini, L., DeBello, W., Schweizer, F., Augustine, G., Heuss, C., Schäfer, T., Charlton, M.P. and Betz, H. Protein interactions  implicated in neurotransmitter release. J. Physiol. (Paris) 92 (1998) 129-133.

Schulz, R., Sawruk, E., Mülhardt, C., Bertrand, S., Baumann, A., Phannavong, B., Betz, H., Bertrand, D., Gundelfinger, E.D. and Schmitt, B. Da3, a new functional a-subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila. J. Neurochem. 71 (1998) 853-862.

Honer, M., Benke, D., Laube, B., Kuhse, J., Heckendorn, R., Allgeier, H., Angst, C. Monyer, H, Seeburg, P., Betz, H. and Möhler, H. Differentiation of glycine antagonist sites of NMDA receptor subtypes: preferential interaction of CGP61594 with NR1/2B receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 11158-11163.

Pellegrini, L.L., El-Far, O., Dresbach, T., Betz, H., and O'Connor, V. Dissection of the secretory machinery. In: Secretory Systems and Toxins (M. Linial ed.) Harvard Academic Publishers, Amsterdam (1998) pp. 63-80.

Dresbach, T., Burns, M.E., O'Connor, V., DeBello, W.M., Betz, H. and Augustine, G.J. A neuronal sec1-homologue regulates neurotransmitter release at the squid giant synapse. J. Neurosci. 18 (1998) 2923-2932.

Laube, B., Kuhse, J.and Betz, H. (1998) Evidence for a tetrameric structure of recombinant NMDA receptors. J. Neurosci. 18 (1998) 2954-2961.

Kirsch, J.  and Betz, H. Glycine receptor activation is required for receptor clustering in spinal neurons. Nature 392 (1998) 717-720.

Schweizer, F.E., Dresbach, T., DeBello, W.M., O'Connor, V., Augustine, G.J. and Betz, H. Regulation of neurotransmitter release kinetics by NSF. Science 279 (1998) 1203-1206.

Skaliora, I., Singer, W., Betz, H. and Püschel, A.W. Differential patterns of semaphorin expression in the developing rat brain. Eur. J. Neurosci. 10 (1998) 1215-1229.

Sur, C., Betz, H. and Schloss, P. Distinct effects of imipramine on 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake mediated by the recombinant rat serotonin transporter SERT1. J. Neurochem. 70 (1998) 2545-2553.

Kirsch, J. and Betz, H. Gephyrin. In: Guidebook to the cytoskeletal and motor proteins Oxford University Press (T. Kreis, R. Vale, eds.) (1998)

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Year 1997

Sur, C., Schloss, P.  and Betz, H. The rat serotonin transporter: identification of cysteine residues important for substrate transport. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 241 (1997) 68-72.

Böhm, S. Harvey, R.J., Holst, A.v., Rohrer, H.  and Betz, H. Glycine receptors in cultured chick sympathetic neurons are excitatory and trigger neurotransmitter release. J. Physiol. (London) 504 (1997) 683-694.

Sakata, K., Sato, K., Schloss, P., Betz, H., Shimada, S. and Tohyama, M. Characterization of glycine efflux mediated by glycine transporter 1 stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. Mol. Brain Res. 49 (1997) 89-94.

Adams, R.H., Lohrum, M., Klostermann, A., Betz, H. und Püschel, A.W. The chemorepulsive activity of secreted semaphorins is regulated by furin-dependent proteolytic processing. EMBO J. 16 (1997) 6077-6086.

O'Connor, V., Heuss, C., DeBello, W., Dresbach, T., Charlton, M., Hunt, J., Pellegrini, L., Hodel, A., Burger, M.M., Betz, H., Augustine, G. and Schäfer, T. Disruption of syntaxin-mediated protein interactions blocks neurotransmitter secretion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) 12186-12191.

Boehm, S. and Betz, H. Somatostatin inhibits excitatory transmission at rat hippocampal synapses via presynaptic receptors. J. Neurosci. 17 (1997) 4066-4075.

Sur, C. Betz, H. and Schloss, P. A single serine residue controls the cation dependence of 5-HT transport by the rat serotonin transporter. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) 7639-7644.

Ramming, M., Betz, H. and Kirsch, J. Analysis of the promoter region of the murine gephyrin gene. FEBS Lett. 405 (1997) 137-140.

Laube, B., Hirai, H., Sturgess, M., Betz, H. and Kuhse, J. Molecular determinants of agonist discrimination by NMDA receptor subunits: Analysis of the glutamate binding site on the NR2B subunit. Neuron 18 (1997) 493-503.

Betz, H., Goebel, R. and Jentsch, T. Zukunftsaspekte der Neurowissenschaften. In: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Perspektiven der Forschung und ihrer Förderung, 1997-2001, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (1997) pp. 163-176.

Landsdell, S.J., Schmitt, B., Betz, H., Sattelle, D.B. and Millar, N.S. Temperature-sensitive expression of Drosophila neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J. Neurochem. 5 (1997) 1812-1820.

Lenz-Böhme, B., Wismar, J., Fuchs, S., Reifegerste, R., Buchner, E., Betz, H. and Schmitt, B. Insertional mutation of the Drosophila nuclear lamin Dm0 gene results in defective nuclear envelopes, clustering of nuclear pore complexes and accumulation of annulate lamellae. J. Cell Biol. 137 (1997) 1001-1016.

Betz, H., O'Connor, V., Dresbach, T., Pellegrini, L., Bommert, K., DeBello, W., Hunt, J.M, Schweizer, F., Augustine, G.J., Charlton, M.P, Adams, R., Sato, K., Püschel, A.W. Sur, C. and Schloss, P. Proteins implicated in neurotransmitter release and reuptake. NATO ASI Series, Vol H 100, Neurotransmitter Release and Uptake (S. Pögün, ed.), Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg (1997) p. 3-9

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Year 1996

Kirsch, J., Meyer, G. and Betz, H. Synaptic targeting of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 8 (1996) 93-98.

Sur, C., Betz, H. and Schloss, P. Localization of the serotonin transporter in rat spinal cord. Eur. J. Neurosci. 8 (1996) 2753-2757.

Jess, U., Betz, H. and Schloss, R. The membrane-bound rat serotonin transporter, SERT1, is an oligomeric protein. FEBS Lett. 394 (1996) 44-46.

Schmieden, V., Jezequel, S. and Betz, H. Novel antagonists of the inhibitory glycine receptor derived from quinolinic acid compounds. Mol. Pharmacol. 50 (1996) 1200-1206.

Morgans, C.W., Brandstätter, J.H., Kellermann, J., Betz, H. and Wässle, H. A SNARE complex containing syntaxin 3 is present in ribbon synapses of the retina. J. Neurosci. 16 (1996) 6713-6721.

Püschel, A.W., Adams, R.A. and Betz, H. The sensory innervation of the mouse spinal cord may be patterned by differential expression of, and differential responsiveness to, semaphorins. .Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 7 (1996) 419-431.

O'Connor, V., Pellegrini, L., Dresbach, T, Bommert, K., El Far, O., Betz, H., DeBello, W., Hunt, J.M., Schweizer, F., Augustine, G.J. and Charlton, M.P. Protein-protein interactions in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Biochem. Soc. Transactions 24 (1996) 666-670.

Adams, R.H., Betz, H. and Püschel, A.W. A novel class of murine semaphorins with homology to thrombospondin is differentially expressed during early embryogenesis. Mech. Dev. 57 (1996) 33-45.

Hirai, H., Kirsch, J., Laube, B., Betz, H. and Kuhse, J. The glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor subunit NR1: Identification of novel determinants of co-agonist potentiation in the extracellular M3-M4 loop region. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 6031-6036.

Brandstätter, J. H., Wässle, H., Betz, H. and Morgans, C. The plasma membrane protein SNAP-25 but not syntaxin is present at photoreceptor and bipolar cell synapses in the rat retina. Eur. J. Neurosci. 8 (1996) 823-828.

Sur, C., Betz, H. and Schloss, P. Immunocytochemical detection of the serotonin transporter SERT1 in rat brain. Neuroscience 73 (1996) 217-231.

Hartenstein, B., Schenkel, J., Kuhse, J., Besenbeck, B., Kling, C., Becker, C.-M., Betz, H. and Weiher, H. Low level expression of glycine receptor ß subunit transgene is sufficient for phenotype correction in spastic mice. EMBO J. 15 (1996) 1275-1282.

Béchade, C., Colin, I., Kirsch, J., Betz, H. and Triller, A. Expression of glycine receptor a subunits and gephyrin in cultured spinal neurons: a quantitative analysis. Eur. J. Neurosci. 8 (1996) 429-435.

Augustine, G.J., Betz, H., Bommert, K., Charlton, M.P., DeBello, W.M., Dresbach, T., Hunt, J.M., O'Connor, V, Rothman, J.E., Schweizer, F.E., Wang, S.S.-H. and Whiteheart, S.W. Molecular mechanisms of neurotransmitter secretion: functional studies at the squid giant synapse. In: Basic Neuroscience in Invertebrates (H. Koike, Y. Kidokoro, K. Takahashi and T. Kanaseki, eds.) Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo (1996) 197-214.

Burns, M.E., Beushausen, S., Chin, G., Tang, D., DeBello, W., Dresbach, T., O'Connor, V. Schweizer, F., Wang, S.S.-W., Whitheheart, S.W., Hawkey, L., Betz, H. and Augustine, G.J. Proteins involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. Cold Spring Harbour Symp. Quant. Biol. 60 (1996) 337-348.

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Year 1995

Kirsch, J., Kuhse J.and Betz, H. Targeting of glycine receptor subunits to gephyrin-rich domains in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 6 (1995) 450-461.

Schmieden, V. and Betz, H. Pharmacology of the inhibitory glycine receptor: agonist and antagonist actions of amino acids and piperidine carboxylic acid compounds. Mol. Pharmacol. 48 (1995) 919-927.

Sato, K., Betz, H. and Schloss, P. The recombinant GABA transporter GAT1 is downregulated upon activation of protein kinase C. FEBS Lett. 375 (1995) 99-102.

Sassoé-Pognetto, M., Kirsch, J., Grünert, U., Greferath, U., Fritschy, J.M., Möhler, H., Betz, H. and Wässle, H. Colocalization of gephyrin and GABAA-receptor subunits in the rat retina. J. Comp. Neurol. 357 (1995) 1-14.

Schweizer, F.E., Betz, H. and Augustine, G.J. From vesicle docking to endocytosis: intermediate reactions of exocytosis. Neuron 14 (1995) 689-696.

Pellegrini, L.L., O'Connor, V., Lottspeich, F. and Betz, H. Clostridial neurotoxins compromise the stability of a low-energy SNARE complex mediating NSF activation of synaptic vesicle fusion. EMBO J. 14 (1995) 4705-4713.

Kuhse, J., Betz, H. and Kirsch, J. The inhibitory glycine receptor: architecture, synaptic localization and molecular pathology of a postsynaptic ion channel complex. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 5 (1995) 318-323.

Meyer, G., Kirsch, J, Betz, H. and Langosch, D. Identification of a gephyrin binding motif on glycine receptor ß subunit. Neuron 15 (1995) 563-572.

Morr, J., Rundström, N., Betz, H., Langosch, D. and Schmitt, B. Baculovirus-driven expression and purification of glycine receptor a1 homooligomers. FEBS Lett. 368 (1995) 495-499.

Püschel, A.W., Adams, R.H. and Betz, H. Murine semaphorin D/collapsin is a member of a diverse gene family and creates domains inhibitory for axonal extension. Neuron 14 (1995) 941-948.

Sato, K., Adams, R., Betz, H. and Schloss, P. Modulation of a recombinant glycine transporter (GlyT1b) by activation of protein kinase C. J. Neurochem. 65 (1995) 1967-1973.

Schloss, P. and Betz, H. Heterogeneity of antidepressant binding sites on the recombinant rat serotonin. transporter SERT1. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 12590-12595.

Laube, B., Langosch, D., Betz, H. and Schmieden, V. Hyperekplexia mutations of the glycine receptor unmask the inhibitory subsite for ß-amino-acids. NeuroReport 6 (1995) 897-900.

Kirsch, J. and Betz, H. Gephyrin: Ein Ankerprotein für Neurotransmitterrezeptoren. Neuroforum 1 (1995) 25-31.

Laube, B., Kuhse, J., Rundström, N., Kirsch, J., Schmieden, V. and Betz, H. Modulation by zinc ions of native rat and recombinant human inhibitory glycine receptors. J. Physiol. (London) 483 (1995) 613-619.

Püschel, A.W.  and Betz, H. Neurexins are differentially expressed in the embryonic nervous system of mice. J. Neurosci. 15 (1995) 2849-2856.

Adams, R. H., Sato, K., Shimada, S., Tohyama, M., Püschel, A.W. and Betz, H. Gene structure and glial expression of the rodent glycine transporter GlyT1. J. Neurosci. 15 (1995) 2524-2532.

DeBello, W.M., O'Connor, V., Dresbach, T., Whiteheart, S.W., Wang, S.S-H., Betz, H. Rothman, J.E. and Augustine, G.J. SNAP-mediated protein-protein interactions are essential for neurotransmitter release. Nature 373 (1995) 626-630.

Kirsch, J. and Betz, H. The postsynaptic localization of the glycine receptor-associated protein gephyrin is regulated by the cytoskeleton. J. Neurosci. 154 (1995) 148-4156.

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Year 1994

Pellegrini, L.L., O'Connor, V. and Betz, H. Fusion complex formation protects synaptobrevin against proteolysis by tetanus toxin light chain. FEBS Lett. 353 (1994) 319-323.

Becker, C.-M., Hoch, W., Schramm, M, Wolters, I. and Betz, H. Influence of NMDA receptor antagonists on glycine receptor isoform expression in spinal cord cultures. In: Cerebral ischemia and basic mechanisms. A. Hartmann, F. Yatsu and W. Kuschinsky (eds.) Springer Verlag (1994) pp. 180-189.

Augustine, G.J., and Betz, H. (eds.) The presynaptic terminal. Seminars Neurosci. 6 (1994) volume 3.

Mülhardt, C., Fischer, M., Gass, P., Simon-Chazottes, D., Guénet, J.-L., Kuhse, J., Betz, H. and Becker, C.-M. The spastic mouse: aberrant splicing of glycine receptor ß subunit mRNA caused by intronic insertion of L1 element.
Neuron 13 (1994) 1003-1015.

Langosch, D., Laube, B., Rundström, N., Schmieden, V., Bormann, J. and Betz, H. Decreased agonist affinity and chloride conductance of mutant glycine receptors associated with human hereditary hyperekplexia. EMBO J. 13 (1994) 4223-4228.

Siebert, A., Lottspeich, F., Nelson, N. and Betz, H. Purification of the synaptic vesicle binding protein physophilin: Identification as 39 kDa subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 28329-28334.

Püschel, A.W., O'Connor, V. and Betz, H. The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is preferentially expressed in the nervous system. FEBS Lett. 347 (1994) 55-58.

Schloss, P., Püschel, A.W. and Betz, H. Neurotransmitter transporters: New members of known families. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 6 (1994) 595-599.

Augustine, G.J., Betz, H., Bommert, K., Charlton, M.P., DeBello, W.M., Hans, M. and Swandulla, D. Molecular pathways for presynaptic calcium signaling. In: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release (Stjarne, L., Greengard, P.,Grillner, S., Hokfelt, T. and Ottoson, D., eds.) Adv. Second Messenger and Phosphoprotein  Res., Vol. 29, Raven Press, New York (1994) pp. 139-154.

Rundström, N., Schmieden, V., Betz, H., Bormann, J. and Langosch, D. Cyanotriphenylborate: a novel subtype-specific open channel blocker of inhibitory glycine receptor chloride channels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 (1994) 8950-8954.

Schloss, P., Mayser, W., Niehuis, A. and Betz, H. Na+-dependent high-affinity uptake of choline into cultured fibroblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 199 (1994) 1320-1325.

Harvey, R.J., Schmitt, B., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Gundelfinger, E.D., Betz, H. and Darlison, M.G. Sequence of a Drosophila ligand-gated chloride-channel polypeptide with an unusual amino-terminal extracellular domain. J. Neurochem. 62 (1994) 2480-2483.

O'Connor, V, Augustine, G.J and Betz, H. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis: More Molecules and Models. Cell 76 (1994) 785-787.

O'Connor, V., Duggan, M., Siebert, A., Bommert, K., DeBello, W., Augustine, G.J. and Betz, H. Molecular approaches to neurotransmitter release. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 733 (1994) 290-297.

Betz, H., Kuhse, J., Fischer, M., Schmieden, V., Laube, B., Kuryatov, A., Langosch, D., Meyer, G., Bormann, J., Rundström, N., Matzenbach, B., Kirsch, J. and Ramming, M. Structure, diversity and synaptic localization of inhibitory glycine receptors. J. Physiol. (Paris) 88 (1994)243-248.

Hunt, J., Bommert, K., Charlton, M.P., Kistner, A., Habermann, E., Augustine, G.J and Betz, H. A post-docking role for synaptobrevin in synaptic vesicle fusion. Neuron 12 (1994) 1269-1279.

Kuryatov, A., Laube, B., Betz, H., Kuhse, J., Kuryatov, A., Laube, B., Betz, H. and Kuhse, J. Mutational analysis of glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor: evidence for structural similarity to bacterial amino acid binding proteins. Neuron 12 (1994) 1291-1300.

Schloss, P., Mayser, W. and Betz, H. The putative rat choline transporter CHOT transports creatine and is highly expressed in neural and muscle-rich tissues. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 199 (1994)1320-1325.

Matzenbach, B., Maulet, Y., Sefton, L., Coutier, B., Avner, P., Guénet, J.-L. and Betz, H. Structural analysis of mouse glycine receptor alpha subunit genes. Identification and chromosomal localization of a hovel variant, alpha 4. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994)2607-2612.

Taleb, O. and Betz, H. Expression of human glycine receptor a1 subunit in Xenopus oocytes: apparant affinities of agonists increase at high receptor density. EMBO J. 13 (1994) 1318-1324.

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Year 1993

Laube, B., Kuryatov, A., Kuhse, J.and Betz, H. Glycine-glutamate interactions at the NMDA receptor: role of cysteine residues. FEBS Lett. 335 (1993)331-334.

DeBello, W., Betz, H. and Augustine, G.J. Synaptotagmin and neurotransmitter release. Cell 74 (1993) 947-950.

Kuhse, J., Laube, B., Magalei, D. and Betz, H. Assembly of the inhibitory glycine receptor: Identification of amino-acid sequence motifs governing subunit stoichiometry. Neuron 11 (1993) 1049-1056.

Kirsch, J., Wolters, I., Triller, A. and Betz, H. Gephyrin antisense oligonucleotides prevent glycine receptor clustering in spinal neurons. Nature 366 (1993) 745-748.

Schmieden, V., Kuhse, J. and Betz, H. Mutation of glycine receptor subunit creates b-alanine receptor responsive to GABA. Science 262 (1993) 256-258.

Betz, H., Schuster, C., Ultsch, A. and Schmitt, B. Molecular biology of ionotropic glutamate receptors in Drosophila melanogaster. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 14 (1993) 428-431.

O'Connor, V.M, Shamotienko, O., Grishin, E. and Betz, H. On the structure of the "synaptosecretosome": evidence for a neurexin/synaptotagmin/ syntaxin/Ca2+ channel complex. FEBS Lett. 326 (1993) 255-260.

Ultsch, A., Schuster, C.M., Laube, B., Betz, H. and Schmitt, B. Glutamate receptors of Drosophila melanogaster: primary structure of a putative NMDA receptor protein expressed in the head of the adult fly. FEBS Lett. 324 (1993) 171-177.

Kirsch, J., Malosio, M.-L., Wolter, I. and Betz, H. Distribution of gephyrin transcripts in the adult and developing rat brain. Eur. J. Neurosci. 5 (1993) 1109-1117.

Bormann, J., Rundström, N., Betz, H. and Langosch, D. Residues within transmembrane segment M2 determine chloride conductance of glycine receptor homo- and heterooligomers. EMBO J. 12 (1993) 3729-3737.

Betz, H. Diversity of neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS: implications for information processing. In: Exploring Brain Functions. Models in Neuroscience (Poggio, T.A. and Glaser, D.A., eds.) John Wiley and Sons, Chichester-New York-Brisbane-Toronto-Singapore (1993) 19-26.

Betz, H. Langosch, ,D., Rundström, N., Bormann, J., Kuryatov, A., Kuhse, J., Schmieden, V., Matzenbach, B. and Kirsch, A. Structure and biology of inhibitory glycine receptors. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 707 (1993) 109-115.

Bommert, K. Charlton, ,M.P., DeBello, W., Chin, G., Betz, H. and Augustine, G.J. Inhibition of neurotransmitter release by C2 domain peptides implicates synaptotagmin in exocytosis at the squid giant synapse. Nature 363 (1993) 163-165.

Schuster, C.M., Ultsch, A., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. Molecular analysis of Drosophila glutamate receptors. In: Comparative Molecular Neurobiology (Pichon, Y., ed.) Birkhäuser, Basel (1993) pp.234-240.

Bergmann, M., Schuster, T., Grabs, D., Marquèze-Pouey, B., Betz, H., Traurig, H,, Mayerhofer, A and Gratzl, M. Synaptophysin and synaptoporin expression in the rat olfactory system during development. Dev. Brain Res. 74 (1993) 235-244.

Kirsch, J., and Betz, H. Widespread expression of gephyrin, a putative glycine receptor-tubulin linker protein, at central synapses. Brain Res. 621 (1993) 301-310.

Becker, C.-M., Betz, H. and Schröder, H. Expression of inhibitory glycine receptors in postnatal rat cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 606 (1993) 220-226.

Ovtscharoff, W., Bergmann, M., Marquèze-Pouey, B., Knaus, P., Betz, H., Grabs, D., Reisert, I. and Gratzl, M. Ontogeny of synaptopyhsin and synaptoporin in the central nervous system: Differential expression in striatal neurons and their afferents during development. Dev. Brain Res. 72 (1993) 219-225.

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Year 1992

Betz, H. Structure and function of inhibitory glycine receptors. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 25 (1992) 381-394.

Betz, H. Transmitter release from nerve terminals: A Ca2+-regulated, multiprotein process. Neuroscience Facts 3 (1992)74-75.

Schloss, P., Mayser, W., Gundelfinger, E.D. and Betz, H. Cross-linking of 125I-α-bungarotoxin to Drosophila head membranes identifies a 42 kDa toxin binding polypeptide. Neurosci. Lett. 145 (1992) 63-66.

Betz, H., Siebert, A. and Bommert, K. Neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals: a calcium-regulated multi-protein process. Proc. 20th Karolinska Institute Nobel Conference on Calcium Signalling (1992) pp. 91-92.

Pribilla, I., Tagaki, T., Langosch, D., Bormann, J. and Betz, H. Atypical M2 segment of the ß submit confers picrotoxin resistance to inhibitory glycine receptor channels. EMBO J. 11 (1992) 4305-4311.

Schloss, P., Mayser, W. and Betz, H. Neurotransmitter transporters: a novel family of integral plasma membrane proteins. FEBS Lett. 307 (1992) 76-80.

Betz, H., Schmieden, V. and Kuhse, J. Determinants of ligand binding to the inhibitory glycine receptor. In: Membrane Proteins: Structures, Interactions and Models (A. Pullmann et al., eds. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Amsterdam (1992) pp. 241-247.

Mayser, W., Schloss, P. and Betz, H. Primary structure and functional expression of a choline transporter expressed in the rat nervous system. FEBS Lett. 305 (1992) 31-36.

Takagi, T., Pribilla, I., Kirsch, J. and Betz, H. Coexpression of the receptor-associated protein gephyrin changes the ligand binding affinities of a2 glycine receptors. FEBS Lett. 303 (1992)178-180.

Langosch, D., Hoch, W. and Betz, H. The 93 kDa protein gephyrin and tubulin associated with the inhibitory glycine receptor are phosphorylated by an endogenous protein kinase. FEBS Lett. 298 (1992) 113-117.

Ultsch, A., Schuster, C.-M., Laube, B., Schloss, P., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. Glutamate receptors of Drosophila melanogaster: cloning of a kainate-selective subunit epxressed in the central nervous system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89 (1992) 10484-10488.

Schmieden, V. Kuhse, ,J. and Betz, H. Agonist pharmacology of neonatal and adult glycine receptor alpha subunits: identification of amino acid residues involved in taurine activation. EMBO J. 11 (1992) 2025-2032.

Prior, P., Schmitt, B., Grenningloh, G., Pribilla, I., Multhaup, G., Beyreuther, K., Maulet, Y., Werner, P., Langosch, D., Kirsch, J. and Betz, H. Primary structure and alternative splice variants of gephyrin, a putative glycine receptor-tubulin linker protein. Neuron 8 (1992) 1161-1170.

Hoch, W., Betz, H., Schramm, M., Wolters, I. and Becker, C.-M. Modulation by NMDA receptor antagonists of glycine receptor isoform expression in cultured spinal cord neurons. Eur. J. Neurosci. 4 (1992) 389-395.

Becker, C.-M., Schmieden, V. Tarroni, ,P., Strasser, U. and Betz, H. Isoform-selective deficit of glycine receptors in the mouse mutant spastic. Neuron 8 (1992) 283-289.

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Year 1991

Mayser, W., Betz, H. and Schloss, P. Isolation of cDNAs encoding a novel member of the neurotransmitter transporter gene family. FEBS Lett. 295 (1991) 203-206.

Kirsch, J., Langosch, D., Prior, P., Littauer, U.Z., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. The 93k protein of the postsynaptic glycine receptor complex binds to tubulin. J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 22242-22245.

Betz, H. Glycine receptors: heterogeneous and widespread in the mammalian brain. Trends Neurosci. 14 (1991) 458-461.

Malosio, M.L., Marquèze-Pouey, B., Kuhse, J. and Betz, H. Widespread expression of glycine receptor subunit mRNAs in the adult and developing rat brain. EMBO J. 10 (1991) 2401-2409.

Betz, H., Kuhse, J., Schmieden, V., Malosio, M.-L., Langosch, D., Prior, P., Schmitt, B. and Kirsch, J. How to build a glycinergic postsynaptic membrane. J. Cell Sci. S15 (1991) 23-25.

Schuster, C.M., Ultsch, A., Schloss, P., Cox, J.A., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. Molecular cloning of an invertebrate glutamate receptor subunit expressed in Drosophila muscle. Science 254 (1991) 112-114.

Naas, E., Schröder, H., Zilles, K., Becker, C.-M. and Betz, H. Corticale Glycinrezeptoren der Ratte: Laminäre, zelluläre und subzelluläre Lokalisation. Verh. Anat. Ges. 84 (1991) 605-607.

Ultsch, A., Schuster, C.M., Betz, H. and Wisden, W. In situ hybridization with oligonucleotides: a simplified method to detect Drosophila transcripts. Nucl. Acids Res.19 (1991) 3746.

Kuhse, J., Kuryatov, A., Maulet, Y., Malosio, M.L., Schmieden, V. and Betz, H. Alternative splicing generates two isoforms of the a2 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor. FEBS Lett. 283 (1991) 73-77.

Langosch, D., Hartung, K., Grell, E, Bamberg, E. and Betz, H. Ion channel formation by synthetic transmembrane segments of the inhibitory glycine.  receptor - A model study. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1063 (1991) 36-44.

Naas, E., Zilles, K., Gnahn, H., Betz, H., Becker, C.-M. and Schröder, H. Glycine receptor immunoreactivity in rat and human cerebral cortex.  Brain Res. 561 (1991) 139-146.

Betz, H., Becker, C.-M., Schmieden, V., Hoch, W., Pribilla, I., Langosch, D., Malosio, M.-L. and Kuhse, J. Molecular biology of inhibitory glycine receptors. In: Transmitter Amino Acid Receptors: Structures, Transduction and Models for Drug Development (Barnard, E.A. & Costa, E., eds.) Thieme, Stuttgart-New York (1991) pp. 503-509.

Kuhse, J., Becker, C.-M., Schmieden, V., Hoch, W., Pribilla, I., Langosch, D., Malosio, M.-L., Muntz, M. and Betz, H. Heterogeneity of the inhibitory glycine receptor. In: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Alcohol and Anesthetics (Rubin, E., Miller, K.W. & Roth, S.H., eds.)  Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 625 (1991) 129-135.

Marquèze-Pouey, B., Wisden, W., Malosio, M.-L. and Betz, H. Differential expression of synaptophysin and synaptoporin mRNAs in the postnatal rat central nervous system. J. Neurosci. 11 (1991) 3388-3397.

Malosio, M.-L., Grenningloh, G., Kuhse, J., Schmieden, V., Schmitt, B., Prior, P. and Betz, H. Alternative splicing generates two variants of the a1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 2048-2053.

Schröder, S., Hoch, W., Becker, C.-M., Grenningloh, G. and Betz, H. Mapping of antigenic epitopes on the a1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor. Biochemistry 30 (1991) 42-47.

Schloss, P., Betz, H., Schröder, C and Gundelfinger, E. D. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila: ALS and ARD proteins are subunits of a high-affinity α- bungarotoxin binding complex. J. Neurochem. 57 (1991) 1556-1562.

Betz, H., Langosch, D., Hoch, W., Prior, P, Pribilla, I., Kuhse, J., Schmieden, V., Malosio, M.-L., Matzenbach, B., Holzinger, F., Kuryatov, A., Schmitt, B., Maulet, Y. and Becker, C.-M. Structure and expression of inhibitory glycine receptors. In: Neuroreceptor Mechanisms in Brain (Kito, S. ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1991) pp. 421-429.

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Year 1990

Sawruk, E., Udri, C., Betz, H. and Schmitt, B. SBD, a novel structural subunit of the Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, shares its genomic localization with two a-subunits. FEBS Lett. 273 (1990) 177-181.

Kuhse, J. Schmieden, V. and Betz, H. Identification and functional expression of a novel ligand binding subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 22317-22320.

Knaus, P., Marquèze-Pouey, B., Scherer, H. and Betz, H. Synaptoporin, a novel putative channel protein of synaptic vesicles. Neuron 5 (1990) 453-462.

Betz, H. Ligand-gated ion channels in the brain: The amino acid receptor superfamily. Neuron 5 (1990) 383-392.

Thomas, L. and Betz, H. Synaptophysin binds to physophilin, a putative synaptic plasma membrane protein. J. Cell Biol. 111 (1990) 2041-2052.

Sawruk, E, Schloss, P., Betz, H. amd Schmitt, B. Heterogeneity of Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: SAD, a novel developmentally regulated a-subunit. EMBO J. 9 (1990) 2671-2677.

Econs, M. J., Pericak-Vance, M.A., Betz, H., Bartlett, R.J., Speer, M.C. and Drezner, M.K. The human glycine receptor: A new probe that is linked to the X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets gene. Genomics 7 (1990) 439-441.

Kuhse, J., Schmieden, V. and Betz, H. A single amino acid exchange alters the pharmacology of neonatal rat glycine receptor subunit. Neuron 5 (1990) 867-873.

Kirsch, J., Littauer, U. Z., Schmitt, B., Prior, P., Thomas, L. and Betz, H. Neuraxin corresponds to a C-terminal fragment of microtubule-associated protein 5 (MAP5). FEBS Lett. 262 (1990)259-262.

Langosch, D., Becker, C.-M. and Betz, H. The inhibitory glycine receptor: A ligand-gated chloride channel of the central nervous system. Eur. J. Biochem. 194 (1990)1-8.

Grenningloh, G., Pribilla, I., Prior, P., Multhaup, G., Beyreuther, K., Taleb, O. and Betz, H. Cloning and expression of the 58 kd ß subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor. Neuron 4 (1990) 963-970.

Grenningloh, G., Schmieden, V., Schofield, P. R., Seeburg, P. H, Siddique, T., Mohandas, T.K., Becker, C.-M. and Betz, H. Alpha subunit variants of the human glycine receptor: Primary structures, functional expression and chromosomal localization of the corresponding genes. EMBO J. 9 (1990) 771-776.

Betz, H. Homology and analogy in transmembrane channel design: Lessons from synaptic membrane proteins. Biochemistry 29 (1990) 3591-3599.

Knaus, P. and Betz, H. Mapping of a dominant immunogenic region of synaptophysin, a major membrane protein of synaptic vesicles. FEBS Lett. 261 (1990) 358-360.

Langosch, D., Betz, H. and Becker, C.-M. Molecular structure and developmental regulation of the inhibitory glycine receptor. In: Glycine neurotransmission (O.P. Ottersen & J. Storm-Mathisen, eds.) John Wiley and Sons, Chichester/New York (1990) pp. 67-82.

Zopf, D., Dineva, B., Betz, H. and Gundelfinger, E.D. Isolation of the chicken middle-molecular weight neurofilament (NF-M) gene and characterization of its promoter Nucl. Acids Res. 18 (1990) 521-529.

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Year 1989

Schmidt, R.R. and Betz, H. Cross-linking of ß-bungarotoxin to chick brain membranes. Identification of subunits of a putative voltage-gated K+ channel. Biochemistry 28 (1989) 8346-8350.

Vetter, J. and Betz, H. Expression of synaptophysin in the rat phaeochromocytoma cell line PC12. Exp. Cell Res. 184 (1989) 360-366.

Tohyama, M., Wanaka, A., Araki, T., Betz, H.and Malbon, C.C. Localization of glycine and beta-adrenergic receptors in the rat brain. Arch. Histol. Cytol. 52 (1989) 39-48.

Rienitz, A., Grenningloh, G., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Kirsch, J., Prior, P., Littauer, U.Z. Gundelfinger, E.D., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. Neuraxin, a novel putative structural protein of the rat central nervous system that is immunologically related to microtubule-associated protein 5. EMBO J. 8 (1989) 2879-2888.

Siddique, T, Phillips, K., Betz, H., Grenningloh, G., Warner, K., Hung, W.-Y, Laing, N. and Ross, A.D. RFLPs of the gene for the human glycine receptor on the X-chromosome. Nucl. Acids Res. 4 (1989) 1785.

Hoch, W., Betz, H.  and Becker, C.-M. Primary cultures of mouse spinal cord express the neonatal isoform of the inhibitory glycine receptor. Neuron 3 (1989) 339-348.

Sontheimer, H., Becker, C.-M., Pritchett, D.B., Schofield, P.R., Grenningloh, G. Kettenmann, H., Betz, H. and Seeburg, P. H. Functional chloride channels by mammalian cell expression of rat glycine receptor subunit. Neuron 2 (1989) 1491-1497.

Langosch, D., Grenningloh, G., Schmieden, V., Prior, P., Malosio, M.-L., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. The postsynaptic glycine receptor - a member of the neurotransmitter-gated channel protein family. In: NATO ASI Series (Maelicke, A., ed.) Molecular biology of neuroreceptors and ion channels, Vol. H32 (1989) pp. 125-130.

Hoch, W., Betz, H. and Becker, C.-M. Immunological identification of a neonatal glycine receptor isotype expressed during early postnatal development. In: NATO ASI Series (Maelicke, A., ed.) Molecular biology of neuroreceptors and ion channels, Vol. H32 (1989) pp. 131-138.

Gundelfinger, E.D., Hermanns-Borgmeyer, I., Schloss, P., Sawruk, E., Udri, C., Vingron, M., Betz, H. and Schmitt, B. Ligand-gated ion channels of Drosophila. In: NATO ASI Series (Maelicke, A., ed.) Molecular biology of neuroreceptors and ion channels, Vol. H32, Springer Berlin-Heidelberg (1989)pp. 69-81.

Thomas, L., Knaus, P. and Betz, H. Comparison of the presynaptic vesicle component synaptophysin and gap junction proteins: a clue for neurotransmitter release? In: NATO ASI Series (Maelicke, A., ed.) Molecular biology of neuroreceptors and ion channels, Vol. H32, Springer Berlin-Heidelberg (1989) pp. 283-298.

Schmieden, V., Grenningloh, G., Schofield, P. R. and Betz, H. Functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of the strychnine binding 48-kd subunit of the glycine receptor. EMBO J. 8 (1989) 695-700.

Betz, H., Gundelfinger, E. D., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Sawruk, E., Schloss, P. and Schmitt, B. Central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the chicken and Drosophila CNS: Biochemical and molecular biology approaches. In: Central cholinergic transmission (Frotscher, M. and Misgeld, U., eds.) Birkhäuser, Basel-Boston-Berlin (1989) pp. 183-189.

Zopf, D., Sonntag, V., Betz, H. and Gundelfinger, E.D. Developmental accumulation and heterogeneity of myelin basic protein transcripts in the chick visual system. Glia 2 (1989) 241-249.

Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Hoffmeister, S., Sawruk, E., Betz, H., Schmitt, B. and Gundelfinger, E.D. Neuronal acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila: Mature and immature transcripts of the ard gene in the developing central nervous system. Neuron 2 (1989)1147-1156.

Becker, C.-M., Hoch, W. and Betz, H. Sensitive immunoassay shows selective association of peripheral and integral membrane proteins of the inhibitory glycine receptor complex. J. Neurochem. 53 (1989) 125-131.

Betz, H. Molekularbiologie der inhibitorischen Synapse. Arzneimittelforschung 39 (1989) 138-143.

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Year 1988

Murakami, T., Araki, T., Yamano, M., Wanaka, A., Betz, H. and Tohyama, M. Localization of the glycine receptors in the rat central nervous system: an immunocytochemical analysis Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 236 (1988) 71-80.

Schmidt, R.R.  and Betz, H. The ß-bungarotoxin binding protein from chick brain: binding sites for different neuronal K+ channel ligands co-fractionate upon partial purification. FEBS Lett. 240 (1988) 65-70.

Betz, H., Becker, C.-M., Grenningloh, G., Gundelfinger, E.D., Hoch, W., Kraus, P., Langosch, D., Prior, P., Schmitt, B.  and Thomas, L. Structural organization of neuronal channel proteins. In: Molecular basis of biomembrane transport (Palmieri, F. and Quagliarello, E., eds.) Elsevier Publ. (1988) pp. 69-70.

Hermanns-Borgmeyer, I., Sawruk, E., Schloß, P., Gundelfinger, E.D. and Betz, H. Biochemical and molecular biology approaches to central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In: Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Nervous System, NATO ASI Series, Vol. H25 (Clementi, F., Gotti, C. and Sher, E., eds.), Springer Verlag (1988) pp. 77-88.

Becker, C.-M., W. Hoch, and Betz, H. Glycine receptor heterogeneity in rat spinal cord during postnatal development. EMBO J. 7 (1988) 3717-3726.

Thomas, L., Hartung, K., Langosch, D., Rehm, H., Bamberg, E., Franke, W.W. and Betz, H. Identification of synaptophysin as a hexameric channel protein of the synaptic vesicle membrane. Science 242 (1988) 1050-1053.

Schloss, P., Hermanns-Borgmeyer, I., Betz, H. and Gundelfinger, E.D. Neuronal acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila: the ARD protein is a component of a high-affinity a-bungarotoxin binding complex. EMBO J. 7 (1988) 2889-2894.

Sawruk, E., Hermanns-Borgmeyer, I., Betz, H. and Gundelfinger, E.D. Characterization of an invertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene: The ard gene of Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS Lett. 235 (1988) 40-46.

Betz, H. and Becker, C.-M. The mammalian glycine receptor: Biology and structure of a neuronal chloride channel protein. Neurochemistry Int. 13 (1988) 137-146.

Langosch, D., Thomas, L. and Betz, H. Conserved quarternary structure of ligand-gated ion channels: The postsynaptic glycine receptor is a pentamer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85 (1988) 7394-7398.

Betz, H. Neurotransmitter-gated chloride channels in the central nervous system. In: Hormones and Cell Regulation, Vol. 165 (1988) pp. 127-132.

Zopf, D., Grenningloh, G., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Rienitz, A., Becker, C.-M., Schmitt, B. E. Gundelfinger and Betz, H. Molecular biology approaches to the function and development of CNS synapses. In: Cellular and Molecular Basis of Neuronal Signaling, NATO ASI Series, Vol. H21 (Zimmermann, H., ed.) Springer Berlin-Heidelberg (1988) pp. 507-524.

Grenningloh, G., Rienitz, A., Schmitt, B., Methfessel, C., Zensen,, Beyreuther, K. Gundelfinger, E.D.and Betz, H Molecular cloning of the antagonist-binding subunit of the glycine receptor. J. Receptor Res. 8 . (1988) 183-193.

Araki, T., Yamano, M., Muramaki, T., Wanaka, A., Betz, H. and Tohyama, M. Localization of glycine receptors in the rat central nervous system: an immunocytochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody. Neuroscience 25 (1988) 613-624.

Schmidt, R. R., Betz, H. and Rehm, H. Inhibition of ß-bungarotoxin binding to brain membranes by MCD-peptide, toxin I and EGTA. Biochemistry 27 (1988) 963-967.

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Year 1987

Grenningloh, G., Gundelfinger, E., Schmitt, B., Betz, H., Darlison, M.G., Barnard, E.A., Schofield, P.R. and Seeburg, P.H. Glycine vs GABA receptors. Nature 330 (1987) 25-26.

Becker, C.-M. and Betz, H. Strychnine: useful probe or not? Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 8 (1987) 379-380.

Leube, R.E., Kaiser, P., Seiter, A., Zimbelmann, R., Franke, W.W., Rehm, H., Knaus, P., Prior, P., Betz, H., Reinke, H., Beyreuther, K. and Wiedenmann, B. Synaptophysin: molecular organization and mRNA expression as determined from cloned cDNA. EMBO J. 6 (1987) 3261-3268.

Geyer, S.W., Gudden, W., Betz, H., Gnahn, H. and Weindl, A. Co-localization of choline acetyltransferase and post-synaptic glycine receptors in motoneurons of rat spinal cord demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. Neurosci. Lett. 82 (1987) 11-15.

Zopf, D., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Gundelfinger, E.D. and Betz, H. Identification of gene products expressed in the developing chick visual system: characterization of a middle-molecular weight neurofilament (NF-M) cDNA. Genes & Development 1 (1987) 699-708.

Grenningloh, G., Rienitz, A., Schmitt, B., Methfessel, C., Zensen, M., Beyreuther, K. E. D. Gundelfinger and Betz, H. The strychnine-binding subunit of the glycine receptor shows homology with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nature 328 (1987) 215-220.

Nakajima, Y., Tuttle, R., Masuko, S., Betz, H. and Pfeiffer, F. Synapses on the Mauthner cell of the goldfish; Thin-section, freeze-fracture and immunocytochemical studies. J. Electron Microscop. Tech. 6 (1987) 143-154.

Rienitz, A., Becker, C.-M., Betz, H. and Schmitt, B. The chloride channel blocking agent, TBPS, binds to the GABA/benzodiazepine, but not to the glycine receptor. Neurosci. Lett. 76 (1987) 91-95.

Betz, H., Schmitt, B., Becker, C.-M., Grenningloh, G., Rienitz, A., Knaus, P., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Zopf, D., Schloß, P., Sawruk, E., Gundelfinger, E and Rehm, H. Biochemistry and molecular biology of receptors and ion channels in the central nervous system (CNS). In: Receptors and Ion Channels of Excitable Membranes (Y. A. Ovchinnikov & F. Hucho, eds.) Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin-New York (1987) pp. 109-115.

Betz, H. Structure and biology of the mammalian glycine receptor. Trends Neurosci. 10 (1987) 113-117.

Schmitt, B., Knaus, P., Becker, C.-M. and Betz, H. The Mr 93000 polypeptide of the postsynaptic glycine receptor complex is a peripheral membrane protein. Biochemistry 26 (1987) 805-811.

Betz, H., Schmitt, B., Becker, C.-M., Grenningloh, G. and Rienitz, A. The glycine receptor. In: The Molecular Biology of Receptors (Strosberg, D., ed.) Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester and Verlag Chemie Weinheim (1987) pp. 128-138.

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Year 1986

Betz, H., Schmitt, B., Becker, C.-M., Grenningloh, G., Rienitz, A. Hermans-Borgmeye, I., Zopf, D., Schloß, P., Sawruk, E. and Gundelfinger, E. Structure and biology of CNS neurotransmitter receptors. Biochem. Soc. Transactions 15 (1986) 107-108.

Gundelfinger, E. D., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Zopf, D., Sawruk, E., and Betz, H. Characterization of the mRNA and the gene of a putative neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein from Drosophila. In: The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (A. Maelicke ed.) NATO ASI Series, Vol. H3 (1986) pp. 437-446.

Betz, H. Zentralnervöse Synapse: ein neues Begegnungsfeld von Hirnforschung und Molekularbiologie. Futura 3 (1986) 14-18.

Nakajima, Y., Tuttle, R., Masuko, S., Betz, H. and Pfeiffer, F. Ultrastructural studies on neuroreceptors and gap junctions of the goldfish Mauthner cell. Proc. XIth Int. Cong. on Electron Microscopy, Kyoto (1986) pp. 2041-2044.

Knaus, P., Betz, H. and Rehm, H. Expression of synaptophysin during postnatal development of the mouse brain. J. Neurochem. 47 (1986) 1302-1304.

Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Zopf, D., Ryseck, R.-P., Hovemann, B., Betz, H. and Gundelfinger, E. Primary structure and developmental expression of a Drosophila neuronal acetylcholine receptor mRNA. EMBO J. 5 (1986) 1503-1508.

Betz, H., Schmitt, B., Becker, C.-M., Grenningloh, G.  and Rienitz, A. The vertebrate glycine receptor protein. Biochem. Soc. Transactions 52 (1986) 57-63.

Rehm, H., Wiedenmann, B. and Betz, H. Molecular characterization of synaptophysin, a major calcium-binding protein of the synaptic vesicle membrane. EMBO J. 5 (1986) 535-541.

Becker, C.-M., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Schmitt, B. and Betz, H. The glycine receptor deficiency of the mutant mouse spastic: evidence for normal glycine receptor structure and localization. J. Neurosci. 6 (1986) 1358-1364.

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Year 1985

Schneider, M., Adee, C., Betz, H. and Schmidt, J. Biochemical characterization of two nicotinic receptors from the optic lobe of the chick. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 14505-14512.

Betz, H., Schmitt, B., Grenningloh, G., Becker, C.-M. and Hermans, I. The glycine receptor. In: Neurobiochemistry  Springer Verlag Heidelberg (1985) pp. 113-119.

Altschuler, R. A., Betz, H., Parakkal, M.H., Reeks, K.A. and Wenthold, R.J. Identification of glycinergic synapses in the cochlear nucleus through immunocytochemical localization of the postsynaptic receptor. Brain Res. 369 (1985) 316-320.

Triller, A., Cluzeaud, ,A., Pfeiffer, F., Betz, H. and Korn, H. Distribution of glycine receptor at central synapses: an immuno-electron-microscopy study. J. Cell Biol. 101 (1985) 683-688.

Betz, H., Grenningloh, G. and Schmitt, B. The glycine receptor of rat spinal cord: progress in the investigation of a neuronal ion channel protein. In: Molecular Basis of Nerve Activity (Changeux, Hucho, Maelicke and Neumann, eds.) Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin (1985) pp. 263-272.

Betz, H. The glycine receptor of rat spinal cord: exploring the site of action of the plant alkaloid strychnine. Angew. Chem. 97, 363-368 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 24 (1985) 365-370.

Graham, D., Pfeiffer, F., Simler, R. and Betz, H. Purification and characterization of the glycine receptor of rat spinal cord. Biochemistry 24 (1985) 990-994.

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Year 1984

Betz, H. Neues von der Nervenzellmembran: Fortschritte bei der Strukturanalyse transmembranärer Ionenkanäle. Naturwissenschaften 71 (1984) 363-368.

Betz, H. and Pfeiffer, F. Der Glyzinrezeptor: Untersuchungen zur Proteinstruktur eines chemisch kontrollierten Ionenkanals. Funkt. Biol. Med. 3 (1984) 65-68.

Pfeiffer, F., Simler, R., Grenningloh, G. and Betz, H. Monoclonal antibodies and peptide mapping reveal structural similarities between the subunits of the glycine receptor of spinal cord. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81 (1984) 7224-7227

Rehm, H. and Betz, H. Solubilization and characterization of the ß-bungarotoxin binding protein of chick brain. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 6865-6869.

Betz, H.  and Pfeiffer, F. Monoclonal antibodies against the a-bungarotoxin binding protein of chick optic lobe. J. Neurosci. 4 (1884) 2095-2105.

Graham, D., Pfeiffer, F. and Betz, H. Characterization and purification of the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord. In: Investigations of membrane-located receptors (Reid, Cook and Morre, eds.)Plenum Press, New York (1984) pp. 500-511.

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Year 1983

Betz, H., Graham, D., Pfeiffer, F. and Rehm, H. ß-Bungarotoxin and strychnine as tools to characterize neurotransmitter receptors of the central nervous system. In: Toxins as tools in neurochemistry (Hucho, F., ed.), Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin (1983) pp. 245-255.

Rehm, H. and Betz, H. ß-Bungarotoxin; new aspects of an old approach to the presynaptic membrane. In: Toxins as tools in neurochemistry (Hucho, F., ed.), Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin (1983) pp. 341-351.

Betz, H. Regulation of the α-bungarotoxin receptor in chick retina cultures: effects of membrane depolarization, cyclic nucleotide derivates and Ca2+. J. Neurosci. 3 (1983) 1333-1341.

Rehm, H. and Betz, H. Identification by crosslinking of a ß-bungarotoxin binding polypeptide in chick brain membranes. EMBO J. 2 (1983) 1119-1122.

Graham, D., Pfeiffer, F. and Betz, H. Photoaffinity-labelling of the glycine receptor of rat spinal cord. Eur. J. Biochem. 131 (1983) 519-525.
 
Betz, H. Interaction of histrionicotoxin with the putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of the chick visual system. Neurosci. Lett. 33 (1983) 153-158.

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Year 1982

Graham, D., Pfeiffer, F. and Betz, H. Photoaffinity-labelling of the glycine receptor from rat spinal cord. In: Neuroreceptors (Hucho, F., ed.), Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin (1982) pp. 139-144.

Pfeiffer, F., Graham, D. and Betz, H. Solubilization and purification of the postsynaptic glycine receptor from rat spinal cord. In: Neuroreceptors (Hucho, F., ed.), Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin (1982) pp. 145-150.

Betz, H.  and Rehm, H. Characterization of a putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in chick retina. In: Neuroreceptors (Hucho, F., ed.), Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin (1982) pp. 165-171.

Rehm, H.  and Betz, H. Binding of ß-bungarotoxin to synaptic membrane fractions of chick brain. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 10015-10022.

Betz, H., Graham, D.,and Rehm, H. Identification of polypeptide chains associated with a putative neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 11390-11394.

Pfeifffer, F., Graham, D. and Betz, H. Purification by affinity chromatography of the glycine receptor of rat spinal cord. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 9389-9393.

Betz, H. Differential down-regulation of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in primary cultures of chick retina. Neurosci. Lett. 28  (1982) 265-268.

Graham, D, Pfeiffer, F. and Betz, H. Avermectin Bla antagonizes strychnine binding to membranes from rat spinal cord. Neurosci. Lett. 29 (1982) 173-176.

Rehm, H., Schäfer, T. and Betz, H. ß-Bungarotoxin-induced cell death of neurons in chick retina. Brain Res. 250 (1982) 309-319.

Betz, H. and Müller, U. Culture of chick embryo neural retina in serum-free medium: expression of cholinergic proteins. Exp. Cell Res. 138 (1982) 297-302.

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Year 1981

Rehm, H. and Betz, H. Unmasking of a second binding site for α-bungarotoxin in membranes from chick retina. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 102 (1981) 1385-1392.

Graham, D., Pfeiffer, F. and Betz, H. UV light-induced cross-linking of strychnine to the glycine receptor of rat spinal cord membranes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 102 (1981) 1330-1335.

Betz, H. Choline acetyltransferase activity in chick retina cultures: effects of membrane depolarising agents. Brain Res. 223 (1981) 190-194.

Pfeiffer, F. and  Betz, H. Solubilisation of the glycine receptor from rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 226 (1981) 273-279.

Betz, H. Characterization of the a-bungarotoxin receptor in chick embryo retina. Eur. J. Biochem. 117 (1981) 131-139.

Betz, H. The acetylcholine receptor: control of its synthesis, stability and cell surface distribution. In: Metabolic Interconversion of Enzymes (Holzer, H., ed.) Springer (1981) pp. 372-377.

Betz, H. Regulation of acetylcholine receptor. Adv. Physiol. Sci. Vol. 36 (1981) 313-322

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Year 1980

Betz, H.  and Rehm, H. Assembly and turnover of the subsynaptic membrane. In: Biogenesis of cell organelles (Weiss, H. and Sebald, W. eds.), Springer (1980) pp. 175-186.

Betz, H. Effects of drug-induced paralysis and depolarisation on acetylcholine receptor and cyclic nucleotide levels of chick muscle cultures. FEBS Lett. 118 (1980) 289-292.

Betz, H., Bourgeois J. P. and Changeux, J. P. Evolution of cholinergic proteins in developing slow and fast skeletal muscles in chick embryo. J. Physiol. (London) 302 (1980) 197-218.

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Year 1979

Betz , H. and Changeux, J. P. Regulation of muscle acetylcholine receptor synthesis in vitro by derivatives of cyclic nucleotides. Nature 278 (1979) 749-752.

Betz H. Loss of sporulation ability in a yeast mutant with low proteinase A levels. FEBS Lett. 100 (1979) 171-174.

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Year 1978

Bourgeois, J. P., Betz, H. and Changeux, J.P. Effets de la paralysie chronique de l'embryon de poulet par le flaxedil sur le developpement de la junction neuromusculaire. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 286 (1978) 773-776.

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Year 1977

Betz, H. Protein degradation and sporulation in yeast. In: Cellular differentiation in microorganisms, animals, and plants. (Nover, L. & Mothes, K., eds.) Gustav Fischer, Jena-Elsevier, North Holland (1977) pp., 243-255.

Betz, H. Protein degradation during the differentiation of eukaryotic cells: studies on the sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on the formation of the neuromuscular junction in the chick embryo. Acta Biol. Med. Germ. 36 (1977) 1525-1530.

Betz, H., Bourgeois, J.P.  and Changeux, J.P. Evidence for degradation of acetylcholine nicotinic receptors during the development of skeletal muscle in the chick embryo. FEBS Lett. 77 (1977) 219-224.

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Year 1976

Betz, H. Der proteolytische Apparat der Hefezelle und seine Bedeutung für die Sporulation. Habilitationsschrift (1976) Universität Freiburg i. Br.

Betz, H.  and Weiser, U. Protein degradation during yeast sporulation. Enzyme and cytochrome patterns. Eur. J. Biochem. 70 . (1976) 385-395.

Betz, H. Inhibition of protein synthesis stimulates intracellular protein degradation in growing yeast cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 72 (1976) 121-130.

Betz, H.  and Weiser U. Protein degradation and proteinases during yeast sporulation Eur. J. Biochem. 62 (1976) 65-76.

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Year 1975

Hinze, H., Betz, H., Saheki, T. and Holzer, H. Formation of a complex between yeast proteinases A and B. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 356 (1975) 1259-1264.

Betz, H. Levels and turnover of the proteinase B inhibitors in yeast. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 404 (1975) 142-151.

Holzer, H., Betz, H. and Ebner, E. Intracellular proteinases in microorganisms. In: Current Topics in Cellular Regulation 9 (1975)103-156.

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Year 1974

Matern, H., Betz, H. and Holzer, H. Compartmentation of inhibitors of proteinases A and B and carboxypeptidase Y in yeast. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 60 (1974) 1051-1057.

Betz, H., Hinze, H. and Holzer, H. Isolation and properties of two inhibitors of proteinase B from yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 249 (1974) 4515-4521.

Saheki, T., Betz, H. and Holzer, H. Characterization of a macromolecular protease-inhibitor from yeast. In: Intracellular Proteincatabolism (Bohley, P., eds.) Verl. J. A. Barth, Leipzig (1974/76)pp., 194-200.

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Year 1973

Holzer, H., Katsunuma, T., Schoett, E.G., Ferguson, A.R., Hasilik, A. and Betz, H. Studies on a tryptophan-synthase-inactivating system from yeast. Adv. Enzyme Reg. 11 (1973) 53-60.

Betz, H.  and Holzer, H. Properties and regulatory role of a yeast proteinase inhibitor. Proc. Third Internat. Spec. Symp. on Yeasts, Otaniemi/Helsinki, Part II . (1973) pp. 67-80.

Ferguson, A.R., Katsunuma, T., Betz, H. and Holzer, H. Purification and properties of an inhibitor of the tryptophan-synthase-inactivating enzymes in yeast. Eur. J. Biochem 32 (1973) 444-450.

Betz, H., Gratzl, M. and Remmer H. Inactivation of microsomal proteins by lysosomes. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 354 (1973) 567-575.

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Year 1971

Betz, H. Inaktivierung mikrosomaler Reduktasen durch lysosomale Enzyme M.D. Thesis (1971) Universität Tübingen.

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Year 1969

Betz, H. Halbwertszeiten mikrosomalen Proteins, gereinigter NADPH-abhängiger Cytochrom c-Reduktase sowie gereinigten Cytochroms b5 und deren Bedeutung für die Biogenese des endoplasmischen Retikulums. Diplomarbeit (1969) Universität Tübingen.

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